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What is nap effect size?

NAP is a novel application of an established effect size known in various forms as Area Under the Curve (AUC), the Common Language Effect Size (CL), the Probability of Superiority (PS), the Dominance Statistic (DS), Mann-Whitney’s U, and Sommers D, among others.

What does NAP mean in statistics?

2016-02-28 0 Comments. Parker and Vannest (2009) proposed non-overlap of all pairs (NAP) as an effect size index for use in single-case research. NAP is defined in terms of all pair-wise comparisons between the data points in two different phases for a given case (i.e., a treatment phase versus a baseline phase).

What is PND effect size?

Scruggs, Mastropieri, & Casto (1987) proposed the percentage of non-overlapping data (PND) as an effect size index for single-case designs. For an outcome where increase is desirable, PND is defined as the proportion of observations in the B phase that exceed the highest observation from the A phase.

What is Nonoverlap of all pairs?

Non-overlap of all pairs is an improvement of the Percent of non-overlapping data commonly used for quantifying the degree to which the measurements pertaining to each phase share the same values (Scruggs and Mastropieri, 2013).

How do you calculate PND?

To calculate PND, the percentage of data points during intervention that surpassed the extreme values in pretreatment or baseline was calculated. Specifically, in an intervention to increase the dependent variable, the proportion of treatment data points that exceeded the highest baseline value was calculated.

What is tau U analysis?

Abstract. Purpose: Tau-U is a quantitative approach for analyzing single-case experimental design (SCED) data. It combines nonoverlap between phases with intervention phase trend and can correct for a baseline trend (Parker, Vannest, & Davis, 2011).

How do you calculate PND in ABA?

Divide the non-overlapping data points by all the data points to calculate the percentage of non-overlapping data points. In the example, 10 divided by 20 equals 0.5. If you multiply this by 100, it will convert it into the percentage form of 50 percent.

How do you calculate overlap?

Overlap = min(A2, B2) – max(A1, B1) + 1. In other words, the overlap of two integer intervals is a difference between the minimum value of the two upper boundaries and the maximum value of the two lower boundaries, plus 1.

What is overlap data?

When the columns of a table are formed from the categories of a multiple response variable, data from the same case can be present in both of the columns being tested. This is known as overlapping data, and it means that the two samples cannot be considered independent.

How is PEM calculated?

PEM is calculated by first locating the median point or point between the two median points in the baseline data. The median is the middle in the distribution (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2009). Then, a line will be drawn from the median into the treatment phase.

What is Gomez scale?

Gomez classification One of the earliest systems for classifying protein‐energy malnutrition in children, based on percentage of expected weight for age: over 90% is normal, 76–90% is mild (first degree) malnutrition, 61–75% is moderate (second degree) malnutrition and less than 60% is severe (third degree) …

What food can cure marasmus?

Initial treatment of marasmus often includes dried skim milk powder mixed with boiled water. Later, the mixture can also include a vegetable oil such as sesame, casein, and sugar. Casein is milk protein. The oil increases the energy content and density of the mixture.

How is protein calorie malnutrition treated?

Milk-based formulas are the treatment of choice. At the beginning of dietary treatment, patients should be fed ad libitum. After 1 week, intake rates should approach 175 kcal/kg and 4 g/kg of protein for children and 60 kcal/kg and 2 g/kg of protein for adults. A daily multivitamin should also be added.

What are three types of protein-energy malnutrition?

Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is classically described as 1 of 2 syndromes, marasmus and kwashiorkor, depending on the presence or absence of edema. Each type may be classified as acute or chronic. Additionally, marasmus can precede kwashiorkor.

What is the breakdown of protein called?

Protein catabolism

Protein breakdown. Protein catabolism is the process by which proteins are broken down to their amino acids. This is also called proteolysis and can be followed by further amino acid degradation.

What conditions can result in protein deficient malnutrition?

The conditions of kwashiorkor and marasmus represent manifestations of severe protein-calorie malnutrition. Both conditions result from consumption of a diet deficient in protein and calories, but infections also play an important role.

What happens if you get too little protein?

And over time, a lack of protein can make you lose muscle mass, which in turn cuts your strength, makes it harder to keep your balance, and slows your metabolism. It can also lead to anemia, when your cells don’t get enough oxygen, which makes you tired.

What are symptoms of protein deficiency?

Signs and symptoms of protein deficiency

  • Skin, hair and nail problems. …
  • Loss of muscle mass. …
  • Increased risk of bone fractures. …
  • Bigger appetite and increased calorie intake. …
  • Risk of infections. …
  • Fatty liver. …
  • May inhibit proper body growth in children.

What are the two diseases of protein deficiency?

There are two main syndromes associated with protein deficiencies: Kwashiorkor and Marasmus. Kwashiorkor affects millions of children worldwide. When it was first described in 1935, more than 90 percent of children with Kwashiorkor died.

How can I increase my protein naturally?

14 Easy Ways to Increase Your Protein Intake

  1. Eat your protein first. …
  2. Snack on cheese. …
  3. Replace cereal with eggs. …
  4. Top your food with chopped almonds. …
  5. Choose Greek yogurt. …
  6. Have a protein shake for breakfast. …
  7. Include a high protein food with every meal. …
  8. Choose leaner, slightly larger cuts of meat.

Which food gives us protein?

Animal-based foods (meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy foods) tend to be good sources of complete protein, while plant-based foods (fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts, and seeds) often lack one or more essential amino acid.

How do I increase my protein intake?

Easy ways to increase protein intake

  1. Start your day with protein. …
  2. Make protein part of each meal and snack. …
  3. Incorporate dairy foods. …
  4. Replace rice or pasta with quinoa. …
  5. Have a protein shake for a snack. …
  6. Carry high-protein snacks on the go. …
  7. Include larger portions of protein with meals. …
  8. Add protein to carb-heavy meals.

Which fruit has most protein?


Guava. Guava is one of the most protein-rich fruits around. You’ll get a whopping 4.2 grams of the stuff in every cup. This tropical fruit is also high in vitamin C and fiber.

Which vegetable is rich in protein?

Vegetables with the most protein include broccoli, spinach, asparagus, artichokes, potatoes, sweet potatoes, and Brussels sprouts, which typically contain 4–5 grams of protein per cooked cup ( 69 , 70 , 71 , 72 , 73 , 74 , 75 ).