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What is familial fatal insomnia?

Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is a rare genetic degenerative brain disorder. It is characterized by an inability to sleep (insomnia) that may be initially mild, but progressively worsens, leading to significant physical and mental deterioration.

Do people with FFI get any sleep?

Signs & Symptoms

The characteristic symptom in FFI is progressive insomnia. Insomnia often begins during middle age, but it can occur earlier or later in life. Insomnia may first be mild, but it then become progressively worse until an affected individual gets very little sleep.

Can FFI be cured?

There’s no cure for FFI. Few treatments can effectively help manage symptoms. Sleep medications, for example, may provide temporary relief for some people, but they don’t work long term.

How do you test for fatal familial insomnia?

During the night, doctors monitor brain activity, respiration, and eye or leg movements. If they suspect fatal familial insomnia, a doctor might also use a PET scan, which records activity in the body’s tissues and organs. This type of scan can detect abnormalities in the thalamus.

What is the root cause of fatal familial insomnia?

Fatal familial insomnia is a very rare and invariably fatal autosomal dominant neurodegenerative prion disease caused by a mutation of the prion protein (PRNP) gene.

Can you develop FFI?

If two copies are inherited, the offspring has a 100 percent chance of developing the disorder. When it does develop, FFI is always fatal, and the time from diagnosis to death is typically a few months to a year and not more than 18 months.

Is FFI always fatal?

Fatal insomnia is a prion disease of the brain. It is usually caused by a mutation to the gene encoding protein PrPC. It has two forms: fatal familial insomnia (FFI), which is autosomal dominant and sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI), which lacks the gene mutation.

Fatal insomnia
Medication None
Prognosis Always fatal

How many families have FFI?

In recent years, 27 other families around the world have been found to be carriers of fatal familial insomnia, five of those in the United States.